What makes a story… a story?

I’ve spent a great deal of time wondering about the difference between “a story” and, “a sequence of events that happen to a character.” Those might appear to be synonyms, but they are not. A story — a good one, anyway — is more than just a slice of someone’s life. It does more for the reader: it comes together, it builds, it is ultimately satisfying. Each step in the story matters, and only together, do they create the outcome. A story is made up of a series of events, but not all series of events rise to the level of a story. I have a growing sense of this, and yet, I have a terribly hard time understanding how to separate the two. I often stare at my freshly-scribbled chapters unsure if I’ve just built onto my story… or if I’ve merely extended some lifeless “sequence of events.”


A lot of my writing (more so earlier, I like to think) suffers from what you might call, “outline steering.” I’m sure there is an actual industry term for this, but I don’t know it. What I mean is: my characters undergo a specific journey because the plot demands it, even if the character does not.

This is mainly a consequence of being an inexperienced writer. My intuition for how much a character can and will change through certain events is not perfect, so I often expect to be ready for these scenes, only to find I’m not (or rather, the character is not).

The solution I’ve found is to let my characters take more of a driver’s seat. Trust their nature. If I reach a fork in the road that doesn’t make sense for them (and isn’t a small matter of revision in the chapters leading up), I’ll go with the character and shift the outline.

This is how I first came across the problem of defining a story. Without my outline in charge, I was doing more pantsing, inventing scenes and events to move things forward… and more and more I would find that the result seemed to be missing something. Did this scene really need to happen that way? Is this just a scene for the sake of the next scene, or does this advance the story?

So what makes a story… a story?

In case you are hoping for an answer at the end of this, I’m afraid there isn’t one coming. I don’t know what makes a story, and this post is more of a rant than a guide. In any case, I do have some ideas and I’ve spotted some patterns, but there is still a mystery to all this. Here are the things I can offer:


Each chapter should act on the character in such a way that something has changed. In other words, you can step back and say, “I needed this chapter because it changed X,” where X is either the stakes or the character. One of those two needs movement.

Maybe new information has made the situation more dire; thus, we have greater stakes. Maybe a romance took a step forward; thus, a character has moved along their arc. Such changes can be small, forward, or backward, but they must be enough to leave the character in a different state than they began.

Moving a character from one town to another doesn’t do this, unless (for example) they learn something along the way. Solving one problem only to face another doesn’t do this, unless (for example) the stakes have also changed.

When you start comparing your character’s state of mind on the first page of your chapter to the last page of your chapter, it should become clear if something actually happened within them, as opposed to merely happening to them. I’ve found this a very useful guide.

I think the dichotomy between a story and a mere sequence of events comes down to that. If every chapter causes a change, building on the previous change, you end up with a sequence you can’t really break or substitute. You end up with a sequence that is also telling the story of a character’s changes. This helps to create the ending that ties it all together, instead of just adding words or scenes that didn’t carry their weight.

The Ending

Endings are an important aspect in this as well. A story has a climax and a conclusion, and those two need to reward the reader (in one way or another) for the effort they’ve dedicated to reading. Without something to tie together what came before, you may well find your exciting and action-packed chapters fizzle into nothing when considered as a whole.

I’ve identified three items that have a place in almost all good endings, each for intuitive reasons. I speak in absolute terms below for simplicity, but obviously, exceptions to each point readily exist.


The plot needs to reach a point of no return, one that forces the ramp up into the climax and the inevitable fallout after.

This makes sense. You don’t want your characters to be able to walk away. If they can, why don’t they? Something about their nature, or about the situation, ought to lock them on their course. You are telling a story about something, after all, and as you approach that key essence, you want the tension to escalate and the stakes to escalate in order to do it justice. How can you do that if the entire sequence was optional to the invested characters?

This ties back to the idea of every chapter making some change. The changes are working towards a goal, and after a while, there is no turning back from slamming into that goal for better or worse. If you haven’t reached that sense of “no return,” then maybe your chapters aren’t changing enough or else they aren’t converging.  Which leads to…..


At some point, your character arcs need to align with the plot arc to converge on a common cause (or on various sides of that common cause). This is the essence of the climax, the “it all comes down to this” moment. More than that, all this work to build your characters was in order to deliver a payoff scene at the end where they succeed (or fail), learn (or don’t) and ultimately face those consequences at the end of their arc. If nothing in the character’s personal journey relates to the overall motion of the story, then instead of complimenting each other, the two arcs miss.

What, then, was the point of all that building? How does your climax pay the reader for the struggles the character has faced? How can you possibly tie things together and justify their common inclusion in your story if they don’t mesh in any way? Without some sense of payoff for these subplots, the ending won’t be very satisfying. Which leads to…..


Just as a story needs to start at the right place and make the right stops along the way, it has to end at the right place as well. When it does, the result is satisfying. A story leaves you with something, and every part of the story contributed to that resonance. What makes an ending satisfying? This is a broad topic on its own, and one I don’t claim any qualifications to answer in a satisfying way (see what I did there?).

For starters, you need to address the promises you laid out in the book. Close your arcs, address your themes, and resolve your conflicts (as appropriate). I suspect the really satisfying endings feel that way BECAUSE of the above attributes. Chapters moved the characters, the climax was part of an inevitable spiral, and the arcs converged for payoffs after the climax. If each chapter was an indispensable part of the journey of changes that brought about the ending, I expect it will hit with a lot more punch.

Final thoughts

If only there was a simple formula to create compelling stories, but alas, there is not. This is a topic that continues to fascinate me as I experiment with situations, twists, and complexities, only to find out after the fact what worked and what did not. In any case, the above bullets are quite helpful to keep in mind while plotting and have helped me spot opportunities for convergence and moments of change. It remains to be seen if the end results of this effort will reach the lofty goal of “satisfying” but we’ll see. In the meantime, I intend to just keep swimming.

Bitcoin: How to claim your BitcoinCash after the Hard Fork

Before the August 1st, 2017 hard fork, I moved all of my Bitcoins (BTC) to cold storage on various paper wallets, each protected by BIP0038. The fork itself was relatively uneventful, which is a testament to the technology underlying Bitcoin. The currency has survived, not because it has never yet been attacked, but rather because it is designed to survive DESPITE continuous attacks. This proved true once more after the fork.

And then the truly strange happened: everyone with Bitcoins suddenly got free money. Like, actual free money. The new alt coin BitcoinCash (BCH) emerged and has been trading with steady volume and support at about 7% of BTC’s value at the time of this writing. That is a free 7% return on your holdings.

So how do you actually get that cash? How do you access the coins on the new blockchain?

Who this tutorial is for:

  1. If you had Bitcoins in paper wallet cold storage prior to the fork
  2. If you leverage BIP0038 to encrypt your paper wallet private keys
  3. If you are a USA citizen

There are a thousand combinations of Bitcoin users, but I fell into the above category and had a hard time figuring out how — exactly — to actually do something with my BCH. Thanks to some Reddit users and google searches, I eventually managed and decided to make a quick how-to for anyone in a similar situation. Despite the specificity, other cold-storage forms and other countries of citizenship may find parts of this useful.

A few basics

Things get a little confusing when we start talking about forks and multiple blockchains. It is important to understand what is going on behind the scenes so you do not expose Private Keys or otherwise cause your Bitcoins to be non-secured. Let me summarize the key understanding before we go on.

Bitcoins all exist on the blockchain. There is no way to “download” your coins or to truly take them “offline,” despite terms like hardware wallet or cold storage imply. Every single coin that exists is noted in the blockchain and is owned by a particular public key. In order for a transaction to include a particular coin (e.g., to be spent), the transaction need to have the private key that corresponds to the public key on that coin in order to prove ownership. I can randomly pick a thousand coins and make a transaction sending them all to me, but the Bitcoin network will reject the transaction when I am not able to provide the proper private key needed to unlock the coins in question. Like a password, but orders of magnitude more secure, I won’t be able to get the needed private keys if I am not the true owner, barring theft or hacking or intervention from a deity.

When you talk about cold storage or hardware wallets, you are talking about keeping that unlocking private key offline so it can’t be stolen, but the coins themselves are always still in the chain and are always still publically assigned to your particular key.

When someone comes along and clones the Bitcoin network and gives it a new name (which is the essence of a fork) they will have the same record of all existing coins, and the same record of all coin assignments. This means your same private key works on the new network, just as it did on the old one.

What happened on August 1st, 2017?

A two-year disagreement between developers of Bitcoin came to a parting of ways. When differences could not be reconciled, a portion of the community decided to just go their own direction. They installed an incompatible version of the Bitcoin network code onto their mining platforms and local machines, took a copy of the existing blockchain, and carried on.

This new code was such that it rejected any blocks coming from the old network, and the old network rejected any blocks coming from the new network. As a result, the two immediately went their own way, each blockchain ignoring the other.

The result is that all coins connected to private keys you control were duplicated. One version sat on the old network, and another version sat on the new network. It also meant that spending and receiving money suddenly forked as well, because now transferring money on one chain has no effect on the other chain.

The key here is this: The same private key now unlocks two coins, but those coins are not otherwise linked or connected. Depending which network your wallet/site uses will decide which of those two coins you are handling at a given time.

How do I get BTC or USD from my cold BCH?

If you’ve followed along so far, you probably can anticipate the steps we need to take. I’ll outline them here, then go into detail:

  1. Sweep BTC in cold storage to a new address
  2. Import your Private Keys into a wallet that talks to the BCH network
  3. Transfer your BCH funds to ViaBTC.com
  4. Trade using BTC/BCC exchange
  5. Send the BTC funds to your normal exchange for cash out, or else back to cold storage

Nice and easy.

Step 1: Sweep

In order to access your BCH, you will need to expose the private key corresponding to the coins you wish to claim. The problem is, as noted above, this same private key will also unlock your Bitcoins on the main chain. Exposing your private key is, therefore, a significant security risk. To get around this, you should first move your existing cold Bitcoins to a brand new address with its own Private Key. This will only affect the coins on the Bitcoin network side, but it will ensure that when you expose your private key in the next step on the BCH network, there is no risk of an attacker trying to unlock corresponding BTC coins. If they do try, they will find a zero balance since that version of the coin has been moved.

I do this through blockchain.info, but any wallet software will do. In blockchain.info, go to Settings->Addresses, and under Imported Addresses, click [+] Import Address. Here you will enter the public address of you current paper wallet, the one containing coins you need to move.

Once you’ve added this “watch address,” return to the main interface and choose “SEND.” Use the drop-down next to “My Bitcoin Wallet” to select the address you just added, and in the TO field, enter the NEW paper wallet address you want to use.

This TO address should be brand new, and thus using a private key that is not associated with any of your coins on the BCH network. You will need to expose your private key now, but your risk is reduced by 15x since the coin on the BCH side is worth that much less.

Note: Blockchain.info supports BIP0038 encryption. If your paper wallet private key is encrypted, as mine are, you will be prompted for the encryption password in order to complete the sweep. This is safe to do.

Repeat this for any other paper wallets you control. At the end of this step, all of your coins will belong to NEW private keys on the main blockchain, but on the new BCH blockchain, all of the same keys we just used still control the corresponding coins there.

2. Import your private keys

Now that your Bitcoins are safe, you want to unlock your BitcoinCash still stored at those old paper wallet addresses. For this, you need a wallet software that knows how to connect to the new network. I used this: http://www.electroncash.org/

Launch the software and create a new standard wallet. Once that is setup, you will have an empty wallet that is connected to the BCH network. Now you need to import the private keys you just used on blockchain in order to access the corresponding coins on this side.

If you use BIP0038, ElectronCash does not allow you to import the encrypted private key the way blockchain.info does. An extra step is required!

2.a. Decrypt your BIP0038 Private Key

Navigate to http://bitaddress.org

Move the mouse around until the %’s reach 100%, just so the interface doesn’t screw with you. Once that is done, click on “Wallet Details” on the right.

Paste in your Private Key, and provide the passphrase. Click the Decrypt button, and let it spin, then your unencrypted Private Key will be printed down below. You can copy the WIF compressed format or the standard noncompressed format.

Note: entering your private key into a website is typically a bad idea. Since we already secured our Bitcoins and are about to move our BCH from this key, the procedure is relatively safe. The password is not uploaded to the server, but there is always a risk that the site is hacked and manipulated. If you use this same password on other cold wallets or are otherwise security paranoid, you can disconnect your network once the site is loaded. Everything will run with javascript offline, leaving you free to do what you need to do, then wipe out the session/cookies before reconnecting. Even better, get a USB-bootable Ubuntu and complete this step in an offline virgin OS (as you should have done when you created your paper wallets in the first place!). I didn’t bother since my private keys and BIP0038 passwords would both be garbage after this operation anyway.

2.b. Sweep into ElectronCash

Once you have non-encrypted private keys, open your wallet in ElectronCash and go to Wallet->Private keys->Sweep.

Enter your non-encrypted private key in the text box (or multiple, if applicable, one per line). Do not change the “Address” field — that is your local wallet address and is a safe place to receive the contents of the old paper wallet. Complete the sweep and wait for confirmation, and now your coins are safely moved to new/distinct addresses on BOTH chains.

3. Transfer to ViaBTC

I had a lot of trouble finding an exchange for BCH that would let me do anything as a US citizen. Coinbase does not support BCH, Bitstamp does not support BCH, Kraken does not validate US citizens, BTC.COM does not validate US citizens, etc.

ViaBTC, however, does allow you to complete a simple automated ID verification. It requires your actual name and a driver’s license ID number (or passport), as well as set a few passwords (you’ll need to setup the asset password, for instance). Once that is done, you can immediately use ViaBTC as a go-between from BCH to BTC. Create the free account, complete the validation, then you want to transfer your money into the platform. I recommend doing a small amount initially and stepping through the entire process before you send large quantities of funds.

Once you have an account, go to the Asset->Deposit->BCC section. ViaBTC uses the older ticker symbol BCC to represent BitcoinCash, even though the rest of the community has moved to BCH since BCC was used for another alt coin. In any case, on this page, you will see a recipient address that you can use to transfer your BitcoinCash into the system. Copy that address.

In Electron Cash, go to the “SEND” tab. Paste the address in the “PAY TO” field, leave description blank, and then select an “AMOUNT” to send. When you are ready, hit SEND. You will need to SIGN the transaction and hit BROADCAST.

You can track the progress of the deposit using any blockchain browser for BCH. I prefer Blockdozer since it is most similar to blockchain.info. The address is this format:


It takes some time to get confirmations since the hash power on the BCH network is much lower than the main BTC network, so be patient. Wait until you get 20 confirmations since ViaBTC prevents you from withdrawing prior to that anyway (even though they let you trade earlier).

4. Trade BCH to BTC

When you have your confirmations, you can go to the Trading tab and select BCC/BTC. Select your full balance by clicking on the “Available balance: xxxx” label, and hit “Sell BCC”.

In my experience, selling was instant. If you return to the Asset tab, you should now see no BCC, but some lesser amount of BTC depending what exchange rate you received.

5. Withdraw your BTC

Now that you have BTC funds, you can withdraw them to your normal exchange, such as Coinbase, or else send them to your paper wallet. You need to configure a recipient address, which is done from the Asset->Card/Address menu.

Under “BTC Address Settings” heading add a new address:

Provide the address of your paper wallet, or else the recipient address from your exchange. Save this then return to the Asset->Withdraw->BTC tab. Here you can send the funds you traded out to the address you just added above:

And that is it! Be patient — the withdrawal will sit in the “processing” state for a short time, then go to “verified” and sit there for a while… all without broadcasting to the Bitcoin network. But within the hour, it will change to “Sent,” at which time you can track it on the normal blockchain.

And that is it! You just collected your free money.


Or, maybe you cheated yourself out of a fortune if BCH gains dominance and BTC falls by the wayside. Nobody can predict what might happen. In any case, if you decide not to sell some (or all) of your BCH, you should still sweep it to a new address, just like we did for the BTC.

If you followed steps 1 & 2 above, your BCH should be safely moved to an address in your ElectronCash software wallet, so if you take the proper backup/password precautions, that is a safe place to retain the funds. Otherwise, you can use ElectronCash to send the coins to a new paper wallet, created the same way you would for a normal Bitcoin paper wallet. The process is the same as outlined in the latter half of step 3, but replace ViaBTC’s recipient address with your own.

Hope this helped to demystify some of the confusion around BCH and BTC of late. Happy trading, fellow crypto hodl’er.